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奥氏体不锈钢的晶间腐蚀及其试验方法

发布日期:2016-11-10    浏览量:6421次

一、晶间腐蚀

JINGJIANFUSHI:JUBUFUSHIDEYIZHONG,YANZHEJINSHUJINGLIJIANDEFENJIEMIANXIANGNEIBUKUOZHANDEFUSHI。

不锈钢具有耐腐蚀能力的必要条件是铬的质量分数必须大于12%,当温度升高,特别是在450℃~800℃时,碳在不锈钢晶粒内部的扩散速度大于铬的扩散速度,室温时,碳在奥氏体中的熔解度很小,约为0.02%~0.03%,一般奥氏体不锈钢中的碳含量均超过此值,故溶解不了多余的碳就不断地向奥氏体晶粒边界扩散,并和铬化合,在晶间形成碳和铬的化合物,如Cr23C6等(见图1)。而铬的扩散速度较小,来不及向晶界扩散,所以在晶间所形成的碳化铬所需的铬主要不是来自奥氏体晶粒内部,而是来自晶界附近,结果就使晶界附近的含铬量大为减少,当晶界附近的铬的质量分数低到小于12%时,就形成相对的“贫铬区”,“贫铬区”电位下降,而晶粒本身仍维持高电位,晶粒与“贫铬区”之间存在着一定的电位差,而在腐蚀介质中晶界的溶解速度和晶粒本身的溶解速度是不同的,晶界的溶解速度远大于晶粒本身的溶解速度,“贫铬区”作为阳极与晶粒构成大阴极小阳极的微电偶电池,造成“贫铬区”的选择性局部腐蚀,也就是晶间腐蚀。

晶间腐蚀试验

TU1 JINGJIEXICHUJIFUSHIDIANJISHIYITU

JINGJIANFUSHIFASHENGHOU,JINSHUSUIRANBIAOMIANRENGBAOCHIYIDINGDEJINSHUGUANGZE,YEKANBUCHUBEIPOHUAIDEJIXIANG,DANJINGLIJIANDEJIEHELIYIXIANZHUJIANRUO,QIANGDUXIAJIANG,LENGWANHOUBIAOMIANCHUXIANLIEFENG,LINGJIANRONGYIZAODAOPOHUAI。JINGJIANFUSHIYINBIXINGQIANG,TUFAXINGPOHUAIJILVDA,YINCIYOUYANZHONGDEWEIHAIXING,YOUQIZAIHANJIESHI,HANFENGFUJINDEREYINGXIANGQUGENGRONGYIFASHENGJINGJIANFUSHI。

YIJINGJIANFUSHIWEIQIYUAN,ZAIYINGLIHEFUSHIJIEZHIDEGONGTONGZUOYONGXIA,KESHIBUXIUGANGYOUJINGJIANFUSHIZHUANBIANWEIYINGLIFUSHIKAILIE。

 

二、合金元素的作用

0Cr18Ni9YU1Cr18Ni9Ti、00Cr18Ni10N、00Cr19Ni10DEHUAXUECHENGFENBIJIAOJIANBIAO1(CANKAOBIAOZHUNGB 4239-1991 BUXIUGANGHENAIREGANGLENGYAGANGDAI)。

一分快三 BIAO1 CHANGJIANAOSHITIBUXIUGANGHUAXUECHENGFEN

HANLIANG%

YUANSU

C

Mn

Si

P

S

Cr

Ni

N

GUONEIPAIHAO

MEIGUO

PAIHAO

一分快三 0Cr18Ni9

304

-0.07

一分快三 -2.00

一分快三 -1.00

一分快三 -0.035

-0.030

17.00

一分快三 -19.00

8.00

一分快三 -10.00

-

一分快三 1Cr18Ni9Ti

WU

-0.12

-2.00

-1.00

-0.035

-0.030

一分快三 17.00

一分快三 -19.00

8.00

-11.00

一分快三 Ti:5(C%-0.02%)-0.80

00Cr18Ni10N

304LN

一分快三 -0.03

一分快三 -2.00

-1.00

一分快三 -0.035

-0.030

一分快三 17.00

一分快三 -19.00

8.50

-11.50

一分快三 0.12-0.22

00Cr19Ni10

304L

一分快三 -0.03

一分快三 -2.00

-1.00

一分快三 -0.035

-0.030

18.00

一分快三 -20.00

一分快三 8.00

-12.00

-

00Cr17Ni14Mo2

一分快三 316L

-0.03

-2.00

一分快三 -1.00

-0.035

-0.030

16.00-18.00

一分快三 12.00-15.00

Mo:2.00-3.00

00Cr17Ni13Mo2N

一分快三 316LN

-0.03

一分快三 -2.00

一分快三 -1.00

一分快三 -0.035

-0.030

16.50-18.50

10.50-14.50

0.12-0.22; Mo:2.00-3.00

 

GESHIJUEDINGBUXIUGANGNAIFUSHIXINGNENGDEZUIJIBENYUANSU,SHIQIYOUNAIFUSHIXINGNENG。ZAIYANGHUAXINGJIEZHIZHONG,GENENGSHIGANGDEBIAOMIANHENKUAIXINGCHENGYICENGSHIJIWEIFUSHIJIEZHIBUNENGTOUGUOHEBURONGJIEDEFUGEDEYANGHUAMO,ZHEICENGYANGHUAMOHENZHIMI,BINGYUJINSHUJIBENJIEHEDEHENLAOGU,BAOHUGANGMIANSHOUWAIJIEJIEZHIJINYIBUYANGHUAJINSHI(DUNHUADEJILI);GEHAINENGYOUXIAODITIGAOGANGDEDIANJIDIANWEI,DANGHANGELIANGBUDIYU12%YUANZISHI,KESHIGANGDEDIANJIDIANWEIFASHENGTUBIAN,YOUFUDIANWEISHENGDAOZHENGDEDIANJIDIANWEI,KEXIANZHUTIGAOGANGDENAISHIXING。

NIEYUGEPEIHEKEYITIGAOGANGDUIFEIYANGHUAXINGJIEZHI(RU:XILIUSUAN、YANSUAN、LINSUANDENG)DENAISHIXING,BINGNENGGAISHANGANGDEHANJIEHELENGWANDENGGONGYIXINGNENG。

DANZAIBUXIUGANGZHONGYOUHENIEXIANGSIDEZUOYONG。

一分快三 TANYIFANGMIANKEYICUIHUOQIANGHUA,CONGERZAIJIXIEXINGNENGFANGMIANKEDADATIGAOTADEQIANGDU;LINGYIFANGMIANYOUYUTANHEGEDEQINHELIHENDA,SUIZHEGANGZHONGHANTANLIANGDEZENGJIA,ZEYUTANXINGCHENGTANHUAWUDEGEYUEDUO,CONGERXIANZHUJIANGDIGANGDENAISHIXING,TEBIESHIREDAO450℃~800℃SHIRONGYIJINGJIANFUSHI。

一分快三 TAIHENIKEFANGZHIBUXIUGANGDEJINGJIANFUSHI,GANGZHONGJIARUTAIHUONI,JIUNENGSHIGANGZHONGDETANSHOUXIANYUTAIHUONIXINGCHENGTANHUAWU,ERBUYUGEXINGCHENGTANHUAWU,CONGERBAOZHENGJINGJIEFUJINBUZHIYINPINGEERCHANSHENGJINGJIANFUSHI,TIGAOBUXIUGANGKANGJINGJIANFUSHIDENENGLI,BINGGAISHANGANGDEHANJIEXINGNENG,TAIHUONIDEJIARULIANGYAOGENJUHANTANLIANGERDING,YIBANWEITAIDEJIARULIANGWEIHANTANLIANGDE5BEI,NIWEITANDE8BEI。

 

三、解决措施

JINGYISHANGFENXIKEZHI,JIHUSUOYOUAOSHITIBUXIUGANG(FEICHAODITANBUXIUGANG)DOUYOUJINGJIANFUSHIQINGXIANG,RUOYAOBIMIANBUXIUGANGJINGJIANFUSHIKEYICONGYIXIAJIGEFANGMIANZHESHOU:

一分快三 1) JIARUYUTANQINHELIBIGEHAIYAOQIANGDEYUANSUTAIHENI,TAIHENICHANGYONGLAIGUDINGGANGZHONGDETAN,TIGAOBUXIUGANGKANGJINGJIANFUSHIDENENGLI,DANSHIYOUYUTAIHENIDOUSHIXIYOUJINSHU,SHIJIBUXIUGANGZHONGTAIHENIDEHANLIANGDOUBUGAO,RU0Cr19Ni10NbN、1Cr18Ni9Ti、0Cr18Ni10Ti、0Cr18Ni11NbDENGJISHIJUNHANYOUTAIHENI,DANCONGSHIJIGONGYIYINGYONGZHONGFAXIAN,YIRANYOUJINGJIANFUSHI,TEBIESHIGUOCHANCAILIAOJINGJIANFUSHIJIAOYANZHONG,ZHEIYESHIGB 4239-1991、GB 1220-1992DENGGUOJIABIAOZHUNZHONGTEBIEZHUMINGBUTUIJIANSHIYONG1Cr18Ni9TiDEYUANYIN,ERZAIZUIXINDEGB/T 3280-2007、GB/T 4237-2007、GB/T 1220-2007DENGGUOJIABIAOZHUNZHONGJUNQUXIAOLE1Cr18Ni9TiZHEIYIAOSHITIBUXIUGANGPAIHAO;

一分快三 2) JIANGDITANDEHANLIANG,XUANYONGCHAODITANDEBUXIUGANG,RU00Cr18Ni10N、00Cr19Ni10、00Cr17Ni14Mo2、00Cr17Ni13Mo2NDENG,CONGGENBENSHANGJIANRUOXINGCHENGTANGEHUAHEWUDEJIHUI,CONGERXIAOCHUJINGJIANFUSHI。

一分快三 3) KONGZHIJIAREWENDUHEJIARESHIJIANJIAREWENDUHEJIARESHIJIANDUIAOSHITIBUXIUGANGJINGJIANFUSHIDEYINGXIANG,RUTU2SUOSHI。DANGJIAREWENDUXIAOYU450℃HUODAYU850 oCSHI,BUHUICHANSHENGJINGJIANFUSHI。YINWEIWENDUXIAOYU450℃SHI,YOUYUWENDUJIAODI,BUHUIXINGCHENGTANHUAGE。DANGWENDUCHAOGUO850℃SHI,JINGLINEIDEGEKUOSANNENGLIZENGQIANG,YOUZUGOUDEGEKUOSANZHIJINGJIEHETANHUAHE,BUHUIZAIJINGJIEXINGCHENG“PINGEQU”。SUOYICHANSHENGJINGWENFUSHIDEJIAREWENDUSHIZAI450~850 oC,ZHEIGEWENDUQUJIANJIUCHENGWEICHANSHENGJINGJIANFUSHIDE“WEIXIANWENDUQU”(YOUCHENG“MINHUAWENDUQU”),QIZHONGYOUYI650 oCZUIWEIXIAN。HANJIESHIHANFENGLIANGCECHUYU“WEIXIANWENDUQU”DEDIDAIZUIYIFASHENGJINGWENFUSHI。JISHISHIHANFENGYOUYUZAILENGQUEGUOCHENGZHONGQIWENDUYEYAOCHUANGUO“WEIXIANWENDUQU”,SUOYIYEHUICHANSHENGJINGJIANFUSHI。

晶间腐蚀试验

TU2

 

一分快三 4) JINXINGGURONGCHULI,HANHOU,JIANGAOSHITIBUXIUGANGDEHANJIEJIETOUZHONGXINJIAREZHI1050~1100℃,CISHITANYOUZHONGXINRONGRENAOSHITIZHONG,RANHOUJISULENGQUE,BIANKEDEDAOWENDINGDEAOSHITIZUZHI,XIAOCHUPINGEQU。ZHEIZHONGFANGFAJIAOGURONGCHULI。GURONGCHULIDEQUEDIANSHI,RUGUOHANJIEJIETOUXUYAOZAIWEIXIANDEWENDUQUGONGZUO,ZERENGBUKEBIMIANDIHUIXINGCHENGPINGEQU。

5) JINXINGJUNYUNHUACHULI,HANHOU,JIANGAOSHITIBUXIUGANGDEHANJIEJIETOUZHONGXINJIAREZHI850~900 oC,BAOWEN2 h,SHIAOSHITIJINGLINEIBUDEGEYOUCHONGFENSHIJIANKUOSANDAOJINGJIE,SHIJINGJIECHUDEHANGELIANGYOUHUIFUDAODAYU12%(ZHILIANGFENSHU),PINGEQUDEYIXIAOSHI,ZHEIJIAOJUNYUNHUACHULI。

6) CAIYONGSHUANGXIANGZUZHI,ZAIHANFENGZHONGJIARUTIESUTIXINGCHENGYUANSU,RUGE、GUI、LV、MUDENG,YISHIHANFENGXINGCHENGAOSHITIJIATIESUTIDESHUANGXIANGZUZHI,HUIDADATIGAOKANGJINGJIANFUSHIDENENGLI。QICIGANGZHONGDEHEJINYUANSUSHIXINGCHENGSHUANGXIANGZUZHIDEZHUYAOYINSU。

 

 

 

四、不锈钢的晶间腐蚀试验方法(以下重点介绍:不锈钢10%草酸浸蚀试验方法)

BIAO2WOGUOBUXIUGANGJINGJIANFUSHIBIAOZHUNSHIYANFANGFA

国标代号

名称

一分快三 GB/T 4334.1-2000

BUXIUGANG10%CAOSUANJINSHISHIYANFANGFA

一分快三 GB/T 4334.2-2000

一分快三 BUXIUGANGLIUSUAN-LIUSUANTIEFUSHISHIYANFANGFA

GB/T 4334.3-2000

BUXIUGANG65%XIAOSUANFUSHISHIYANFANGFA

GB/T 4334.4-2000

一分快三 BUXIUGANGXIAOSUAN-QINGFUSUANFUSHISHIYANFANGFA

GB/T 4334.5-2000

BUXIUGANGLIUSUAN-LIUSUANTONGFUSHISHIYANFANGFA

1.BUXIUGANGJINGJIANFUSHICAOSUANDIANJIEFA

BENFANGFASHIYONGYUJIANYANAOSHITIBUXIUGANGJINGJIANFUSHIDESHAIXUANSHIYAN。SHIYANGZAI10%CAOSUANRONGYEZHONGDIANJIEJINSHIHOU,ZAIXIANWEIJINGXIAGUANCHABEIJINSHIBIAOMIANDEJINXIANGZUZHIYIPANDINGSHIFOUXUYAOJINXINGLIUSUAN-LIUSUANTIE、65%XIAOSUAN、XIAOSUAN-QINGFUSUANYIJILIUSUAN-LIUSUANTONGDENGZHANGSHIJIANRESUANSHIYAN。

2.YIQI

一分快三 2.1 ZHILIUDIANYUAN GONGJINENGLIYUE15VHE20ADEDIANCHI、FADIANJIHUOZHENGLIUQI。

2.2 DIANLIUBIAO0~30AFANWEI

一分快三 2.3 KEBIANDIANZUQI

2.4 YINJI BUXIUGANGYUANZHUTONGJIAN,HUOZUIHAOYONG1qt(KUATUO)(0.946L)DEBUXIUGANGSHAOBEI。

一分快三 2.5 DAJIAZI YONGYUJIACHIBEIQINSHIDESHIJIAN。

2.6 YEJINXIANWEIJING ZAI250~500BEISHUJIANCHAQINSHIXIANWEIJIEGOU。

2.7 QINSHIDIANJIECAODIANJI BEIQINSHISHIJIANGOUCHENGYANGJI,BUXIUGANGSHAOBEIHUOYUBEIQINSHISHIJIANNEIYANGDADEBUXIUGANGTONGGOUCHENGYINJI。

2.8 DIANJIEYE YIERSUAN,SHIJIJI,10%RONGYE,SHIYONGDEDIANJIEJINSHIZHUANGZHIJIANTU3.

 

1-BUXIUGANGBEIHUOBUXIUGANGPIAN;2-SHIYANG;3-ZHILIUDIANYUAN;4-BIANZUQI;5-DIANLIUBIAO;6-KAIGUAN

晶间腐蚀试验

TU3

 

试验时试样为阳极。浸蚀电流密度为1A/cm2。浸蚀时间为90秒。浸蚀溶液温度为200~500C。

JINSHIZUZHIFENQILEI,SHAIXUANSHIYANYUQITASHIYANFANGFADEGUANXIJIANTU4~10.

晶间腐蚀试验

一分快三 TU4 YILEI TAIJIEZHUANGJIEGOU(500×)

一分快三 (JINGLIJIANTAIJIE,JINGLIBIANJIECHUWUGOU)

晶间腐蚀试验

TU5 ERLEI SHUANGZHONGJIEGOU(250×)

(CHUTAIJIEWAI,JINGLIBIANJIECHUYOUYIXIEGOUCAO,DANWUFAWANQUANHUANRAODEJINGLI)

晶间腐蚀试验

TU6 SANLEI GOUCAOJIEGOU(500×)

(YIHUODUOGEJINGLIWANQUANBEIGOUCAOHUANRAO)

晶间腐蚀试验

TU7 SILEI GULIDETIEYANGTI(500×)

(在铸件和焊件中观察到的,奥氏体基体与铁氧体坑之间的台阶)

晶间腐蚀试验

一分快三 TU8 WULEI ZHIZHUANGJINGJIANGOUCAO(250×)

(ZAIZHUTIEHEHANFENGZHONGGUANCHADAODE,SHENDEHULIANGOUCAO)

晶间腐蚀试验

  TU9 LIULEI DUANLIBOSHI I(500×)

(1WEISHAOLIANGZONGSHENDUANLIBOSHI,2WEIQIANQINSHIBOSHI)

晶间腐蚀试验

  TU10 QILEI DUANLIBOSHI II(500×)(GENGJIAJIZHONGDEDUANLIBOSHI)

   容大检测拥有硫化氢腐蚀实验室,可适用于有关耐蚀钢、管线钢和压力容器钢在湿H2S环境中测试氢致开裂(HIC)或应力腐蚀(SCC)的标准或非标准方法,适用于钢铁企业、石化行业、科研院所、大专院校等部门的相关研究和测试。

容大检测可根据用户需求,按照国家标准或行业部门标准,可提供材料在自然环境下的腐蚀失效分析、腐蚀室内外相关性、材料和产品寿命评估、材料和产品环境适应性、材料选材和设计等多方面的科技支撑服务。

具体测试项目:

镍基合金晶间腐蚀试验金属腐蚀速率检测铝合金晶间腐蚀试验不锈钢晶间腐蚀试验晶间腐蚀

标签: 不锈钢晶间腐蚀试验 晶间腐蚀检测 不锈钢晶间腐蚀测试